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Scientist Conference

It is not an over-statement that the scientists rule the world. They make researches and findings about many of the problems and challenges facing man. Man sometime finds himself in situation that requires a way out. It is in view of finding solution to this difficult situation of man that brings about invention. There are many instances for this, however, there are some examples of great historical background, among which is the invention of Penicillin.
There are many things that the scientists have invented and discovered which man benefits from them immensely today. The discoveries are in various walks of life. Scientist research is not restricted to a particular field. There are great researches done in Medical field, Technology, pure sciences, etc.
However, scientific research could be done individually or by a group of scientists. Although many of inventions came up through individual research like Isaac Newton, Gregor Mendel, Pristley, and many other great scientists who came up with new discoveries individually, yet there are some other discoveries, which were made jointly by some group of scholars.
In any way discovery of something comes, there are some steps and procedures that would be taken before such discovery and invention is globally accepted. Scientists who have also worked on the same project or have not worked on it, but who are also in the field, would come together for the review of the discovery. This conference is usually schedule in an agreed country, which will include members from various countries.
Conferences have held in various places in the world which have led to what man now enjoys today. It is from these conferences that a unified approach to the use of the discovery in all countries would be adopted. During the conference, there is a general agreement on the nomenclature of the new invention and a unified unit of measurement in case there is need for it. A very popular conference is Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics that was held in Australia in 2011 and California in 2012.
International scientists traveling abroad to present their research findings typically make use of visitor health insurance so that they are protected in case any illness or injury occurs. This, they would have made arrangement for before there trip. There are many reasons in going for a reliable visitor health insurance.

‘Green routing’ can cut car emissions without significantly slowing travel time

The path of least emissions may not always be the fastest way to drive somewhere. But according to new research from the University at Buffalo, it’s possible for drivers to cut their tailpipe emissions without significantly slowing travel time.
In detailed, computer simulations of traffic in Upstate New York’s Buffalo Niagara region, UB researchers Adel Sadek and Liya Guo found that green routing could reduce overall emissions of carbon monoxide by 27 percent for area drivers, while increasing the length of trips by an average of just 11 percent.
In many cases, simple changes yielded great gains.
Funneling cars along surface streets instead of freeways helped to limit fuel consumption, for instance. Intelligently targeting travelers was another strategy that worked: Rerouting just one fifth of drivers — those who would benefit most from a new path — reduced regional emissions by about 20 percent.
Sadek, a transportation systems expert, says one reason green routing is appealing is because it’s a strategy that consumers and transportation agencies could start using today.
“We’re not talking about replacing all vehicles with hybrid cars or transforming to a hydrogen-fuel economy — that would take time to implement,” said Sadek, an associate professor of civil, structural and environmental engineering. “But this idea, green routing, we could implement it now.”
In the near future, GPS navigation systems and online maps could play an important role in promoting green routing, Sadek said. Specifically, these systems and programs could use transportation research to give drivers the option to choose an environmentally friendly route instead of the shortest route.
Sadek and Guo, a PhD candidate, presented their research on green routing at the 18th World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems in October.
In the UB study on green routing, the researchers tied together two computer models commonly known as “MOVES” and “TRANSIMS.”
The Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES), created by the Environmental Protection Agency, estimates emissions. The Transportation Analysis and Simulation System (TRANSIMS) simulates traffic in great detail, taking into account information including the location and pattern of signals; the grade of the road; and the trips people take at different times of day.
After incorporating Buffalo-specific data into TRANSIMS, Sadek and Guo ran a number of simulations, rerouting travelers in new ways each time.
After running the models numerous times, the researchers reached a “green-user equilibrium” — a traffic pattern where all drivers are traveling along optimal routes. With the system in equilibrium, moving a commuter from one path to another would increase a user’s overall emissions by creating more congestion or sparking another problem.
The simulations were part of a broader study Sadek is conducting on evaluating the likely environmental benefits of green routing in the region. His project is one of seven that the U.S. Department of Transportation has funded through a Broad Agency Announcement that aims to leverage intelligent transportation systems to reduce the environmental impact of transportation.

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‘Green routing’ can cut car emissions without significantly slowing travel time